Family Study: Matthew 28:16-20


Mark 16:14-20 Breakdown

16:14 Then he appeared to the eleven themselves, while they were eating, and he rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those who had seen him resurrected.

The disciples were given more light. They were told by Jesus Himself that He would be resurrected from the dead. Even the disciples could not believe in the resurrection unless the Holy Spirit opened their eyes and ears.

16:15 He said to them, “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature.

This is the great commission. Notice that Jesus was speaking directly to His eleven disciples. He was not speaking to modern day Christians. This was the personal mission for the eleven disciples who were living in that day. Some of these details were recorded in the Book of Acts.

16:16 The one who believes and is baptized will be saved, but the one who does not believe will be condemned.

When one believes, he is baptized with the Holy Spirit immediately at his conversion. Many denominations, cults, and isms falsely teach that one must be water baptized to be saved. The only condition for salvation is grace alone by faith alone in Christ alone. God by his grace changes the heart and the person believes in Christ alone for salvation. It is easy believenism, but tough and rewarding discipleship. Some choose to remain a baby Christian or carnal Christian their entire lives. They do not lose their salvation, but they do lose eternal rewards in their eternal life.

16:17 These signs will accompany those who believe: In my name they will drive out demons; they will speak in new languages; 16:18 they will pick up snakes with their hands, and whatever poison they drink will not harm them; they will place their hands on the sick and they will be well.”

These were sign gifts of the early church, but they disappeared after the temple destruction of 70 A.D. If modern charismatics believe that all of the spiritual gifts of the early church are still around, then they need to drink poison and prove it.

16:19 After the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, he was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God.

Jesus ascended into heaven as the Prince. He currently sits at the right hand of the Father, waiting to take over control over all of the earth. Jesus will not return until the Jews cry out, “Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord.”

16:20 They went out and proclaimed everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through the accompanying signs.

The Lord allowed the apostles and their legates to proclaim the gospel all over the entire Roman world. The apostles were given the ability to perform sign gifts in order to authenticate that their message was from God.


Appendix: The Manuscript Evidence of Mark 16:9-20

The liberal attack on the Bible has trickled even into the teachings of many conservative, evangelical Bible scholars. Like their liberal counterparts, many modern scholars believe that Mark 16:9-20 was not part of the original text. They believe that the text was added later by possibly another scribe. Two of the most ancient Greek manuscripts terminate Mark’s gospel with Mark 16:8, even though this ending is lacking in any kind of logical conclusion.

Many Bible scholars claim that Mark 16:9-20 does not exist in most ancient manuscripts. This is a lie. It was found in 618 ancient manuscripts. It was not found in two ancient manuscripts. Satan uses even modern conservative theologians to attack the validity of the Scriptures.

Most modern versions are based on 45 manuscripts out of 5255 manuscripts. These 45 texts are less than 1% of all available manuscripts. This is why liberals can say that this portion of Mark is not part of the Scriptures because they reject 5210 of the 5255 manuscripts. Liberals get away with this kind of “scholarship” because Christians are too lazy to investigate their claims. If a popular teacher says he likes the ESV, then millions will flock to it without even checking the source. This kind of blind following leaves Christians ignorant.

Mark 16:9-20 is found in 620 ancient manuscripts. It is not found in 45 ancient manuscripts. Here is a partial list of where Mark 16:9-20 is found:

Byzantine Text (450-1450 A.D.)

A 02 - Alexandrinus - Fifth century

C 04 - Ephraemi Rescriptus - Fifth century

D 05 - Bezae Cantabrigiensis - Fifth century

K 017 - Ninth century

Q 026 - Fifth century

W 032 - Fourth/fifth century

X 033 - Tenth century

Delta 037 - Ninth century

Theta 038 - Ninth century

PI-041 - Ninth century

28 (Minuscule) - Eleventh century

33 (Minuscule) - Ninth Century

137 - (Minuscule) - Twelfth Century

138 - (Minuscule) - Eleventh Century

565 - (Minuscule) - Ninth century

700 - (Minuscule) Eleventh century

892 - (Minuscule) - Ninth century

1010 - (Minuscule) - Twelfth Century

1110 - (Minuscule) - Eleventh Century

1210 - (Minuscule) - Eleventh Century

1215 -- (Minuscule) - Thirteenth Century

1216 - (Minuscule) - Ninth Century

1217 - (Minuscule) - 1186 A.D.

1221 - (Minuscule) - Eleventh Century

1582 - (Minuscule) - 948 A.D.

Here is a partial list of where Mark 16:9-20 is omitted:

Aleph 01 - Sinaiticus - Fourth century

B 03 - Vaticanus - Fourth century

304 - Minuscule Twelfth century

2386 - (Minuscule) - Eleventh Century

Here is a list of church fathers who quoted or mentioned Mark 16:9-20:

2nd Century - Justin Martyr - Irenaeus - Tertullian

3rd Century - Hippolytus - Vincentius at the Seventh Council of Carthage 258 A.D. - Acta Pilati - Apostolical Constitutions

4th Century - Eusebius - Macarias Magnes - Aphraates - Didymium - The Syriac Acts of the Apostles - Epiphanius - Leontius - Ambrose - Chrysostom - Jerome - Augustine

5th Century - Leo - Nestorius - Cyril of Alexandria - Victor of Antioch - Patricius - Marius Mercator

6th Century - Gregentius - Prosper - John of Thessalonica - Hesychius - Gregentius - Modestus, Bishop of Jerusalem

Here are some early Bible versions which contained Mark 16:9-20:

2nd Century - Old Latin and Peshitta Syriac versions, Tatian’s Diatessaron

3rd Century - Coptic and Sahidic versions

4th Century - Curetonian Syriac and Gothic versions, Syriac table of Canons

5th Century - Armenian version (some copies), Philoxenian Syriac

6th and 7th Centuries - Georgian and Ethiopic versions

In conclusion, Mark 16:9-20 is contained in 99% of the ancient manuscripts, but modern Christians are too lazy to check out the sources. Instead, they follow the leading of their pastors, who keep them in ignorance.

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