Zechariah 10 (Regathering of Israel)
Summary: Zechariah describes how the people are lost. They have false gods (teraphim), use divination, and lack leadership (v.2). A shepherd can either refer to a human king (2 Sam. 5:2; Isa. 44:28; Jer. 23:2-4) or to God as the King (Ps. 23:1; 100:3; Ezek. 34:11-16). It can also refer to the Messiah (Ezek. 34:23-24; Jn. 10:11-16; Heb. 13:20).
(10:1) This is likely a “veiled polemic” against worshipping Baal—the god of rain and agriculture. Instead of praying to Baal, the people are told to pray to Yahweh.
(10:2) “Teraphim” are household idols (cf. Gen. 31:19), which were used for divination—that is, telling the future (Judg. 17:5; 18:5). This was spoken against with grave terms in the Law (Deut. 18:9-14). The diviners give “vain” comfort, because they just tell people what they want to hear.
The “shepherd” refers to a king of some kind—whether this human (Isa. 44:28; Jer. 23:2-4), divine (Ps. 23:1, 100:3), or messianic (Ezek. 34:23-24).
(10:3) There were plenty of bad shepherds, but no good ones (cf. Ezek. 34:1-10).
God will turn his “flock” of sheep into war-horses.
(10:4) The “cornerstone” is coming from Judah (v.3). This is likely a messianic reference. First, it’s a singular person. Second, he comes from Judah—the messianic tribe (Gen. 49:10). Third, the descriptors seem messianic: cornerstone (Ps. 118:22; Isa. 28:16), tent peg (Isa. 22:23-24), bow of battle (Ps. 45:5; Rev. 19:11-16), and every ruler which implies that the rulers will come from the Messiah or perhaps under his authority. The LORD is with the various human rulers in verse 5, which could imply that the Messiah is deity.
(10:5) The foot soldiers will overpower the cavalry, because God is with them.
(10:6-7) The nation will be reunified: both the south (“Judah”) and the north (“Joseph”). God will completely restore them and make them glad.
(10:8-9) This must refer to the future regathering of Israel at the end of history, because at this point, the regathering under Ezra and Nehemiah had already happened. That is, Zechariah wrote after the earlier regathering.
(10:10-12) “Egypt” and “Assyria” create a chiasm with verses 10-11 (ABBA). This probably represents the fact that the Jewish people will be regathered from all their enemies.
“No room” implies an overflow of people.
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