Zechariah 12 (Mourning over the Messiah)
Chapters 12-14 are all one flowing prophecy in the book.
(12:1) Zechariah describes how God has created the universe and the Earth on a macroscopic level, but also creates the “spirit” of humans on a microscopic level. This likely shows that God is sovereign over everything from the big to the small.
This also shows that God creates each one of our souls and bodies (cf. Gen. 2:7; Ps. 139:13). We aren’t cosmic accidents, but we are created by God himself.
(12:2-3) The surrounding nations try to attack Jerusalem. This results in two interesting metaphors to describe their condition: (1) they become drunk from the fight and (2) they hurt themselves trying to move this immovable “heavy stone.”
(12:4) The curses are placed on the nations—not Israel.
(12:5) The leaders realize that they are winning the battle because of God—not their own military might.
(12:6) Jerusalem is compared to a fire that burns everyone and everything except itself.
(12:7-9) Even the weaklings will be like David!—one of the most powerful warriors in Israel’s history. Moreover, the powerful warriors are compared to “God” or the “angel of the Lord.” The point seems to be that the people will be taken from good to great, and from great to supernaturally powerful. Verse 9 summarizes that the people will go to war against the surrounding nations, destroying them.
(12:10) This moves from political and physical salvation to spiritual salvation from God.
John only quotes half of this verse in John 19:37, showing that the verse has not been totally fulfilled—only progressively fulfilled. This likely won’t come to fruition until just before the Second Coming or perhaps at the Second Coming.
(12:11) Some interpreters regard “Hadadrimmon” as a reference to the god Baal—the great fertility god. The people are mourning over it because they realize how far they’ve fallen into idolatry (cf. Ezek. 8:14). This doesn’t seem likely in our view. They seem to be actually repentant—not longing over a false idol.
Barker understands this to be a simile to the mourning which occurred over the death of King Josiah (2 Chron. 35:20-27). In an analogous way, the people will mourn over the death of the Messiah.
(12:12-14) This is a large-scale, national repentance. However, we should note that Zechariah mentions each individual household to demonstrate that this is not some sort of peer pressure to repent, but each family freely chooses to repent over the death of the Messiah.
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